University of Southern Denmark
Japanese (Roman-ji) -> Symbol Set  Visual Interactive Syntax Learning  
Syddansk Universitet
 
Japanese (Roman ji) VISLSentence AnalysisEdutainment

Printer-friendly version

 

Japanese Symbol Set

(Under Construction)


Links to Japanese Language and Grammar Websites:

 

Quick and Dirty Guide to Japanese

Japanese Language and Culture

Dictionary


KEY TO SYMBOLS

Japanese Case Markers and Pragmatic Markers

Functions (specified with CAPITAL letters)

Forms (specified with small letters)

The stacking convention

Analytical Case Markers:

Nominative

nom

ga

Kyoo wa tenki ga ii desu.

Accusative

acc

o

Tako o tabemashita.

Dative

dat

ni

Otoo-san ni tegami o misemashita.

Genitive

gen

no

Watashi no hon desu.

Postposition marker

ppm

NB: Another way of looking at these constructions is to see them as mirror images of English preposition groups.

  • instrumental

ppm

de

Hashi de tabemashoo.

  • locative

ppm

de

Yokohama de hatarakimashita.

  • instrumental

ppm

de

Ichiman gosen-en de kaimashita.

ppm

to

Watashi wa otoo-san to hanashimasu.

  • locative

ppm

ni

Inu wa niwa ni imasu.

ppm

ni

Eiga o mi ni ikimasu.

  • direction

ppm

e

Nomiya e ikimasu.

  • source

ppm

kara

Kyoto kara kaerimasu.

  • extent

ppm

made

Nichiyoobi kara Suiyoobi made Ken-san no uchi ni imashita.

Top of Page

Pragmatic Markers:

Topic marker

tpm

wa

Sensei wa Amerikajin desu.

Question marker

qum

ka

Sensei wa Nihonjin desu ka.

Exclamation marker

exm

yo

Kore desu yo.

Top of Page

Complement Markers other than Case Terms

Nouns as Complements

Subject Complement

dative

ni

Sensei ni narimashita.

Adjectives as Complements

Subject Complement

ku replaces i

Samuku narimashita.

Adjectival nouns as Complements

Subject Complement

dative

ni

Genki ni narimashita.

Object Complement

dative

ni

Heya o kirei ni shimashita.

Top of Page

 

Special Patterns (case markers followed by certain verbs)

Accusative marker plus the verb "ori.ru"

Kyoto de kisha o orimashita.

Accusative marker plus the verb "deru."

Futari wa Michiko-san no ie o demashita.


FUNCTIONS (SPECIFIED WITH CAPITAL LETTERS)

UTTERANCE (OR DISCOURSE) FUNCTIONS

We operate with FIVE utterance functions: STA, QUE, COM, EXC, PER.

STA

Statement

  • Kore desu.
  • Ikimasu.
  • Watashi wa gakusei desu.
  • Tokyo e ikitai n desu.
  • Biru o nomimashita.
  • Tako o tabeta koto ga arimasu.

QUE

Question

  • Nanji desu ka.
  • O-namae wa.
  • Enpitsu ga arimasu ka.
  • Sushi o tabeta koto ga arimasu ka.
  • Nani o shimasu ka.
  • Ikimashoo ka.
  • Dooshite.

COM

Command

  • Yukkuri ite kudasia.
  • Kite.

EXC

Exclamation

  • Kore desu yo.

PER

Performative

Top of Page


CLAUSE FUNCTIONS

We operate with SIX basic clause functions: S, P, Od, Oi, A, C.

S

Subject

  • Kyoo wa tenki ga ii desu.
  • Hon ga arimasu.
  • Sashimi o tabeta koto ga arimasu.

P

Predicator

  • Ikimasu.
  • Ichigo o tabemashita.
  • Daigaku de hataraite imasu.

Od

 

Direct Object

 

  • Tegami o kakimashita.
  • Ken-san ni hon o misemashita.

Oi

Indirect Object

(NB: In Japanese, indirect objects are always marked with the analytical case marker ni, which corresponds to the English preposition to.

  • Otoo-san ni tegami o kakimashita.

A

Adverbial

  • Mainichi shinbun o yomimasu.
  • Tomoko-san itsu kaerimasu ka?
  • Taihen shizuka ni hanashite imasu.
  • Yoku benkyo shimasu.
  • Tokyo de eiga o mimasu.

C

Complement

(=Subject Complement)

(NB: C is always equivalent to Cs.)

  • Tenki ga ii desu.
  • Sensei wa Amerikajin desu.
  • Kore wa otooto no heya desu.
  • Sensei ni narimashita.
  • Samuku narimashita.

Co

Object Complement

  • Heya o kirei ni shimashita.

Top of Page


SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

The clause functions within subordinate clauses are the same as those within main clauses, with one addition: SUB.

SUB

Subordinator

  • Heya ga shizuka datta kara, watashi wa yoku nemashita.

Top of Page


GROUP FUNCTIONS

A group is by definition a HEAD with one or more DEPENDENTS. Consequently,in our system there are only TWO functions which constituents may have within a group. These are H (Head) and DEP (dependent).

The basic groups can be recognized (and labeled) by the head of the group.This gives us FIVE basic types of group:

  • noun groups
  • verb groups
  • adjective groups
  • adverb groups
  • postposition groups

Top of Page


NOUN GROUPS

H

Head

  • Tanaka-san wa shizuka desu.
  • O-sake o nomimasu.
  • Michiko-san wa oka-san ni Ken-san no tegami o misemashita.

DEP

Dependent

  • Tanaka-san wa shizuka desu.
  • O-sake o nomimasu.
  • Michiko-san wa oka-san ni Ken-san no tegami o misemashita.

Top of Page


VERB GROUPS

H

Head

  • Oishiku arimasen deshita.
  • Hanashite imasu.
  • Yoku benkyo shimashita.

DEP

Dependent

  • Oishiku arimasen deshita.
  • Hanshite imasu.
  • Yoku benkyo shimashita.

Top of Page


ADJECTIVE GROUPS

H

Head

  • Fukuda-sensei wa totemo wakai desu.

DEP

Dependent

  • Fukuda-sensei wa totemo wakai desu.

Top of Page


ADVERB GROUPS

H

Head

  • Yoshi-san taihen shizuka ni hanashimasu.

DEP

Dependent

  • Yoshi-san taihen shizuka ni hanashimasu.

Top of Page


POSTPOSITION GROUPS

H

Head

  • Itsu Nihon e ikimasu.
  • Daigaku de hatarakimasu.
  • Honya wa soko ni arimasu.

DEP

Dependent

  • Itsu Nihon e ikimasu.
  • Daigaku de hatarakimasu.
  • Honya wa soko ni arimasu.

Top of Page


Form (specified with small letters)

We operate with THREE types of forms: cl, g, "word class".

Clause

Clause is abbreviated "cl", which can represent a main clause or a subordinate clause, finite or non-finite.

cl

clause

  • Hon desu.
  • Enpitsu ga arimasu ka?
  • Heya ga shizuka datta kara, yoku nemashita.

Top of Page


Group

Group is abbreviated "g", which can represent a noun group, a verb group, an adjective group, an adverb group, or a postposition group. Since the type of group is uniquely determined by the nature of the head (e.g. a noun group is a group with a noun as its head), it is not necessary to write e.g. ng (for noun group) or vg (for verb group). All five types of group are illustrated below:

g

group

  • Watashi no heya wa nikai ni arimasu.
  • Hashi de tabete imasu.
  • Kore wa totemo ii desu.
  • Totemo shizuka ni hanashite imasu.
  • Niwa ni inu ga imasu.

Top of Page


Word classes

We operate with 11 word classes. Each of these is illustrated below:

n

noun

Tegami o kakimashita.

v

verb

Nani o shimasu ka?

vn

verbal noun

Nihongo o benkyo shimasu.

adj

adjective

Sensei wa wakai desu.

Michiko-san wa wakai sensei desu.

adjn

adjectival noun

Kanojo wa kirei desu ne.

Kore wa kirei na kanajo desu.

adv

adverb

Takusan nomimashita.

pro

pronoun

Sono jitensha wa takai desu ka.

ppm

postposition

Kyoto kara kaerimasu.

conj

conjunction

Ken-san to Yoshi-san to Tomoko-san ikimashita.

num

numeral

Kore wa ichiman gozen-en de kaimashita.

intj

interjection

Ee, nani o shimashita ka?

Top of Page


The stacking convention

In this convention we use a capital X for an otherwise unspecified function, and a small x for an otherwise unspecified form:

X

FUNCTION STACK

Example of X:cu

Suzuki-san wa maiban nomiya e itte, o-sake o takusan nomimasu.

x

form stack

Example of CJT:x (twice)

Suzuki-san wa maiban nomiya e itte, o-sake o takusan nomimasu.

Top of Page


Back to Japanese Grammar Page

questions? comments?: Steven Breunig's E-mail

 


Copyright 1996-2017 | Report a Problem / Contact Us | Printable Version