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Greek Symbol Set

Many of the sample sentences used to illustrate the symbol set below are taken from the list of pre-analyzed Greek sentences. These  correspondences are clearly marked by supplying the code number from the list of sentences (e.g. G11.1) where relevant. When no such code is supplied, the examples have been coined for the occasion. As a guide for the non-Greek speaker, the  forms which have been highlighted in the Greek examples (for example, a discontinuous predicator) are matched as closely as possible by equivalent highlighting in the English translation. For the most part, there is a very good equivalence. But in a few cases, marked by an opening !, the highlighted portion of the English translation does not represent a one-to-one equivalence. 


KEY TO SYMBOLS

Functions (specified with CAPITAL letters)
Forms (specified with small letters)
The stacking convention


1. FUNCTIONS (SPECIFIED WITH CAPITAL LETTERS)

 

1.1. UTTERANCE (OR DISCOURSE) FUNCTIONS

We employ a very general cover symbol, UTT (for Utterance), which can be used in place of any of the more specific five utterance functions with which we operate: STA, QUE, COM, EXC, PER.

STA 

Statement 

  • I Athína íne poli. (G11.1)
  • 'Ime i daskála sas gia ta eliniká. (G13.17.b) 
  • I óra íne tris. (G15.23.b) 
  • 'Imaste. (G13.12.b) 
  • 'Ochi, to écho anági egó. (G20.50.b) 
  • Mu arési o kafés. (G17.40.a) 

QUE 

Question 

  • 'Echis tin óra? (G13.10.a) 
  • 'Iste fititís? (G13.11.a) 
  • Ti óra íne? (G13.23.a) 
  • Vlépete tus psarádes ke tis ginékes sti paralía? (G17.38.a) 
  • Mu to dínis? (G20.50.a) 

COM 

Command 

  • 'Ase me ísicho! (Leave me alone!)
  • Akolúthise aftó to amáxi! (Follow that car!) 
  • Síko páno re! (Get up!) 
  • Skáse! (Shut up!) 
  • Trécha! (Run!) 
  • Mi! (Don't!) 
  • 'Exo! (Out!) 

EXC 

Exclamation 

  • Aftó den íne sostó! (That's not fair!) 
  • Poté xaná! (Never again!) 
  • Theé mu! (My God!) 
  • 'Ach! (Ouch!) 

PER 

Performative 

  • Ke to ónoma aftú Ioanis. (I christen this boy "John"). 
  • Apoválese! (You're out!) 

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1.2. CLAUSE FUNCTIONS (that is, functions which constituents may have within a clause)

 

1.2.1. BASIC CLAUSE FUNCTIONS

We operate with FIVE basic clause functions: S, P, O, A, C.

Subject 

  • I Athína íne poli. (G11.1)
  • Esí to échis? (G20.49.b)
  • I archéa onomasía tis Mitilínis  íne Lésvos. (G11.4) 
  • 'Ochi, to écho anagi egó. (G20.50.b)

Predicator 

  • I Athína íne poli. (G11.1)
  • 'Echo xanárthi edó paliá . (I have been here before) 
  • M' agapái. (She loves me) 
  • Vges éxo! (Get out!)

Object 

NB: The label O is a cover symbol for different types of object. As such it does not appear in analyses. (But see Od, Of, and Oi.)

In the examples to the right, all the highlighted items are examples of Od.

  • Tin Kiriakí den échume máthima. (G15.31.b) 
  • Ton agapái. (She loves him.) 
  • 'Echi fitités sti Filosofikí Scholí. (G13.16) 
  • 'Ipe óti évreche. (She said that it was raining.
  • Aftó to epichírima den mu arési. (This argument I don't like.)
  • Xéris ti óra íne? (Do you know what time it is?) 
  • Thélume na fígume tóra. (We want to leave now.) 

Adverbial 

(NB: In our system, prepositional groups are never indirect objects; where some grammarians speak here of Oi (q.v.) we speak of A.) 

  • Ton ída chtes. (I saw him yesterday.) 
  • Póte érchete? (When is he arriving?) 
  • 'Ela apo dó. (Come this way.) 
  • Ton sinádisa sto tréno. (I met him on the train.) 
  • Distichós árgise. (Unfortunately, he was late.)
  • O piitís gráfi 2 vivlía káthe 5 mínes. (G20.48)
  • Tin Kiriakí den échume máthima.  (G15.31.b) 

Complement 

NB: The label C is a cover symbol for different types of complement. As such it does not appear in analyses. (But see Cs and Co.)

In the examples to the right, all the highlighted items re examples of Cs.

  • I Athína íne póli. (G11.1)
  • 'Ime i daskála sas gia ta elliniká. (G13.17.b) 
  • O Socrátis ítan énas perífimos filósofos stin archéa Athína. (G20.45)
  • O Líncoln ítan énas kalós próedros. (Lincoln was a good president.)

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1.2.2. ADDITIONAL CLAUSE FUNCTIONS

Three of the five basic functions can be further subdivided. These are S,O, C. This gives rise to the following subtypes:

  • S: S, Sf
  • O: Od, Of, Oi
  • C: Cs, Co

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1.2.2.1. TYPES OF SUBJECT

We tentatively distinguish between S, for Subject, and Sf, for Formal (or Provisional) Subject. It is debatable whether Greek has anything that can legitimately be called a "Formal Subject" (corresponding, for example to English "it" in e.g. "It surprised me that she was late"). However, we have employed this label for the "missing Subject" of the so-called impersonal Greek syntactic constructions, and for cases of subject displacement.
 

S

Subject

S with no Sf:

  • I Athína íne poli. (G11.1)
  • Esí to échis? (G20.49.b)
  • I archéa onomasía tis Mitilínis  íne Lésvos. (G11.4) 
  • 'Ochi, to écho anagi egó. (G20.50.b)

S in combination with Sf:

  • Aftó itan chazó, pu éfiges. (It was stupid that you left
  • Aftós ítan o dolofónos, o Karnézis! (It was the killer, Karnézis!) 

Sf 

Formal (or Provisional) Subject

  • [ ] 'Ine mesiméri. (G15.27) 
  • [ ]  Vréchi. (It  is raining)
  • [ ]  'Echi fitités sti Filosofikí Scholí. (G13.16) 
  • Aftó ítan chazó, pu éfiges. (It was stupid that you left) 
  • Aftós ítan o dolofónos, o Karnézis! (It was the killer, Karnézis!) 

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1.2.2.2 TYPES OF OBJECT

Where appropriate, we distinguish between the Direct Object (Od) and the Indirect Object (Oi). Where necessary, we also distinguish between the Real Object (Or) and the Provisional Object (Op).

Od

Direct Object 

NB1: This can appear on its own, in combination with Of and in combination with Oi.

NB2: In our system, prepositional groups are never Od (see A).

Od with no other objects:

  • Tin Kiriakí den échume máthima. (G15.31.b) 
  • Ton agapái. (She loves him.) 
  • 'Echi fitités sti Filosofikí Scholí. (G13.16) 
  • 'Ipe óti évreche. (She said that it was raining.
  • Aftó to epichírima den mu arési. (This argument I don't like.)
  • Xéris ti óra íne? (Do you know what time it is?) 
  • Thélume na fígume tóra. (We want to leave now.) 

Od in combination with Of:

  • To theoró períergo, óti ékane tétio schólio. (I find it odd that he would make such a remark) 
  • To xérume apo kalí pigí, óti tha báli ipopsifiótita giá próedros. (We have it on good authority that he plans to run for the presidency)

Od in combination with Oi:

  • 'Edosa ston aderfó mu énan kenúrgio ipologistí. (I gave my brother a new computer
  • O patéras mu mu agórase éna aeroporikó isitírio. (My father bought me a plane ticket) 'Ipe tis Alíkis óti th'argísi. (He told Alice that he would be late
  • Me rótise an íxera tin apádisi. (She asked me if I knew the answer
  • 'Ipe tu fílu tu na di énan dikigóro. (He advised his friend to see a lawyer

Oi

Indirect Object 

NB: In our system, prepositional groups are never Oi (see A). 

  • 'Edosa ston aderfó mu énan kenúrgio ipologistí. (I gave my brother a new computer)
  • O patéras mu mu agórase éna aeroporikó isitírio. (My father bought me a plane ticket)
  • 'Ipe tis Alíkis óti th'argísi. (He told Alice that he would be late) 
  • Me rótise an íxera tin apádisi. (She asked me if I knew the answer) 
  • 'Ipe tu fílu tu na di énan dikigóro. (He advised his friend to see a lawyer) 

Of

Formal (or Provisional) Objec

  • To theoró períergo, óti ékane tétio schólio. (I find it odd that he would make such a remark) 
  • To xérume apo kalí pigí, óti tha báli ipopsifiótita giá próedros. (We have it on good authority that he plans to run for the presidency)
 

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1.2.2.3. TYPES OF COMPLEMENT

We distinguish between the Subject Complement (Cs) and the Object Complement (Co).

Cs 

Subject Complement 

  • I Athína íne póli. (G11.1)
  • I archéa onomasía tis Mitilínis  íne Lésvos. (G11.4) 
  • 'Ime i kenúrja sas daskála. (I am your new teacher)
  • O Socrátis ítan énas perífimos filósofos stin archéa Athína. (G20.45)
  • O Líncoln ítan énas kalós próedros. (Lincoln was a good president

Co 

Object Complement 

  • Prépi na to vápsis prásino to grasídi. (You should color the grass green)
  • Ton ekléxame próedro. (We elected him chairman
  • I thía mu vríke to kluví ádio. (My aunt found the bird cage empty)
  • Ton ípan Ivanóe. (They called him Ivanhoe
  • Tus anakírixe sizígus. (He pronounced them man and wife

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1.2.3. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

The clause functions within subordinate clauses are the same as those within main clauses, with one addition: SUB.

SUB 

Subordinator 

  • 'Ipe óti tha erchótan. (She said that she would be here) 
  • An érthi pes mu.(If he comes, let me know) 
  • Anarotiéme an échi díkio. (I wonder whether he's right)
  • 'Ine thimoménos epidí den égrapses. (He is angry because you didn't write) 
  • Djávasa to gráma afú efige. (I read the letter after he left) 
  • Den íne tóso géros óso nómiza. (He is not as old as I thought) 
  • 'Ine tóso plúsios pu échi tésera aftokínita. (He is so rich that he owns four cars)
  • 'Ipe tu fílu tu na di énan dikigóro. (He advised his friend  [ ] to see a lawyer

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1.2.4. COMPOUND UNITS (paratagma)

A compound unit (or paratagma) contains two or more coordinated words, groups or clauses. The functions within a compound unit are CJT and CO.

CJT 

Conjunct (or Conjunct)

  • Mathénis mathimatikí ke ageografía sti ScholÌ. (G11.5) 
  • Mu arési o musakás, alá den mu arési i retsína. (G11.8)

CO

Coordinator

  • Mathénis mathimatikÌ ke geografÌa sti ScholÌ. (G11.5) 
  • Mu arési o musakás, alá den mu arési i retsína. (G11.8)

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1.3. GROUP FUNCTIONS (that is, functions which constituents may have within a group)

A group is by definition a HEAD with one or more DEPENDENTS. Consequently,in our system there are only TWO functions which constituents may have within a group. These are H (Head) and D (Dependent).

The basic groups can be recognized (and labeled) by the head of the group.This gives us FIVE basic types of group:

  • noun groups
  • verb groups
  • adjective groups
  • adverb groups
  • preposition groups

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1.3.1. NOUN GROUPS

Head 

  • I kuvérta íne vrómiki. (The blanket is dirty)
  • I saláta su fénete nóstimi. (Your salad looks delicious) 
  • Agórase éna portokáli. (He bought an orange
  • Aftá ta vivlía íne diká mu. (These books are mine) 
  • 'Echase tría dolária. (He lost three dollars
  • Aftés íne katapliktikés fotografíes. (Those are lovely pictures
  • Rúcha pu djalégi i Alíki íne pánda akrivá. (Clothes that Alice selects are always expensive) 

D

Dependent 

  • I kuvérta íne vrómiki. (The blanket is dirty) 
  • I saláta su fénete nóstimi. (Your salad looks delicious) 
  • Agórase éna portokáli. (He bought an orange) 
  • Aftá ta vivlía íne diká mu. (These books are mine) 
  • 'Echase tría dolária. (He lost three dollars) 
  • Aftés íne katapliktikés fotografíes. (Those are lovely pictures) 
  • Rúcha pu djalégi i Alíki íne pánda akrivá. (Clothes that Alice selects are always expensive)

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1.3.2. VERB GROUPS

Head 

  • Tha fígo ávrio. (I will leave tomorrow)
  • 'Echo afísi to amáxi stis Alíkis. (I have left the car at Alice's)
  • 'Ochi, to écho anági egó. (G20.50.b)

D

Dependent 

  • Tha fígo ávrio. (I will leave tomorrow)
  • 'Echo afísi to amáxi stis Alíkis. (I have left the car at Alice's)
  • 'Ochi, to écho anági egó. (G20.50.b)

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1.3.3. ADJECTIVE GROUPS

Head 

  • 'Itan arketá logikí. (She was quite reasonable)
  • Gjatí íne to spíti tóso krío? (Why is the house so cold?) 
  • Poté den ton ída pjo anastatoméno. (I never saw him more upset
  • 'Ine tútes arketá megáles? (Are these big enough?) 
  • 'Ine tóso plúsios pu échi tésera amáxia. (He is so rich that he owns four cars) 

D

Dependent 

  • 'Itan arketá logikí. (She was quite reasonable
  • Gjatí íne to spíti tóso krío? (Why is the house so cold?) 
  • Poté den ton ída pjo anastatoméno. (I never saw him more upset
  • 'Ine tútes arketá megáles? (Are these big enough?
  • 'Ine tóso plúsios pu échi tésera amáxia. (He is so rich that he owns four cars

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1.3.4. ADVERB GROUPS

Head 

  • Milás exeretiká kalá. (You speak remarkably well)
  • Póso áschima chtípises? (How badly were you hurt?) 
  • Tragudás polí dinatá. (You sing too loudly)
  • Den borí na tréxi tóso grígora óso egó. (He can not run as fast as I can) 

Dependent 

  • Milás exeretiká kalá. (You speak remarkably well
  • Póso áschima chtípises? (How badly were you hurt?) 
  • Tragudás polí dinatá. (You sing too loudly) 
  • Den borí na tréxi tóso grígora óso egó. (He can not run as fast as I can

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1.3.5. PREPOSITION GROUPS

Head 

  • I Sapfó íne apó ti Mitilíni. (G11.9)
  • 'Elava gráma apó to patéra mu cthes. (I received a letter from my father yesterday)
  • 'Ime i daskála sas giá ta eliniká. (G13.17.b)
  • Gja pjo vivlío milás? (Which book are you talking about?) 
  • I giagiá xéri to manávi apó paliá. (G17.39)

D

Dependent 

  • I Sapfó íne apó ti Mitilíni. (G11.9) 
  • 'Elava gráma apó to patéra mu cthes. (I received a letter from my father yesterday) 
  • 'Ime i daskála sas giá ta eliniká. (G13.17.b) 
  • Gja pjo vivlío milás? (Which book are you talking about?) 
  • I giagiá xéri to manávi apó paliá. (G17.39)

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2. Forms (specified with small letters)

We operate with THREE types of forms: cl, g, "word class".

 

2.1. Clause

Clause is abbreviated "cl", which can represent a main clause or a subordinate clause.

cl 

clause 

  • Pu pigéni? (Where is he going?)
  • 'Ime i daskála sas gia ta eliniká. (G13.17.b) 
  • 'Ela edó! (Come here!
  • Anarotjéme pu pigéni. (I wonder where he is going)
  • Tha íthele na episkeftí ti Galía mia méra. (She would like to visit France some day
  • Apagorévete na psarépsis s' aftí ti prokiméa. (Fishing from this pier is forbidden) 
  • An échis kamjá amfivolía, djávase tis odigíes. (If in doubt, read the instructions) 
  • I Athína íne poli. (G11.1)

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2.2. Group

Group is abbreviated "g", which can represent a noun group, a verb group, an adjective group, an adverb group, or a preposition group. Since the type of group is uniquely determined by the nature of the head (e.g. a noun group is a group with a noun as its head), it is not necessary to write e.g. ng (for noun group) or vg (for verb group). All five types of group are illustrated below:

g

group 

  • I saláta su fénete nóstimi. (Your salad looks delicious)
  • 'Echo afísi to amáxi stis Alíkis. (I have left the car at Alice's)
  • 'Ine aftá arketá megála? (Are these big enough?) 
  • Póso áschima chtípises? (How badly were you hurt?) 
  • Mólis pérases me kókino. (You just went through a red light

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2.3. Word classes

We operate with 10 word classes. Each of these is illustrated below:

noun 

I saláta su fénete nóstimi. (Your salad looks delicious) 

verb 

Píga sti Rómi. (I went to Rome) 

adj 

adjective 

'Ine aftá arketá megála? (Are these big enough?) 

adv 

adverb 

'Efige chtes. (He left yesterday

art 

article 

Na to vivlío pu épsachnes. (Here is the book you were looking for) 

pron 

pronoun 

Pu íne to isitírio su? (Where is your ticket?) 

prp 

preposition 

Mólis pérases me kókino. (You just went through a red light)

conj 

conjunction 

'Ise aristeróchiras i dexióchiras? (Are you left-handed or right-handed?) 

num 

numeral 

'Echo tría pedjá. (I have three children) 

intj 

interjection 

'Ach! Ponái! (Ouch! That hurts) 

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3. The stacking convention

It is often the case, particularly when coordinating conjunctions are involved, that constitutents seem to come together to form a syntactic unit which does not fall within our list of recognized form and/or function labels. There are several potential solutions to the problems created thereby. One such solution we call the "stacking convention". In this convention we use a capital X for an otherwise unspecified function, and a small x for an otherwise unspecified form:

FUNCTION STACK 

Example of X:cu 

O Iisús íche mitéra ti María ke patéra ton Iosíf.

form stack 

Example of CJT:x (twice) 

O Iisús íche mitéra ti María ke patéra ton Iosíf

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