University of Southern Denmark
Arabic  Visual Interactive Syntax Learning  
Syddansk Universitet
 
Arabic VISLSentence AnalysisEdutainment

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Pre-analyzed Arabic sentences

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Teaching corpus: Visualization: In the box above, you can type in either a whole sentence from the pre-analyzed set, or a unique string from the sentence, or the relevant identifying code found at the left of each sentence. Alternatively, you can click on the icon to the left of each sentence, if there is one.

The Arabic transliterated corpus

How to use the transliterated corpus:

  • Click on the grammatical structure you want to examine and choose a sentence. Then write the sentence number in the analysis window above and click the go button.
  • Click on the number link in front of the sentence to see an English translation of the sentence.
  • Click the loudspeaker icon to hear the sentence read aloud (under construction).

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About the transliterated corpus:

The Arabic transliterated corpus consists at the present time of 200 sentences. The sentence analyses use Western grammatical terminology such as subject, verb, object.... etc. (as opposed to the Arabic grammatical tradition). The corpus is based on the vocabulary of "Elementary Modern Standard Arabic" (vol. 1), by Peter Abboud et al. (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1968). For more information about the Arabic VISL, choose The Arabic VISL (in Danish).

  • Primary constituents

Noun clauses without verbs
Noun clauses containing a verb
Verb clauses
Negated clauses

definition
definition
definition
definition
  • Groups

Adjective groups
Noun groups
Preposition groups
Verb groups

definition
definition
definition
definition
  • Subordinate clauses

Noun clauses
Relative clauses
Adverbial clauses

definition
definition
definition
  • Special Arabic constructions

Absolute object (maf*uul muTlaq)
Object of purpose (maf*uul la-hu)
Haal-constructions
Adverbials of specification (tamyiiz)

definition
definition
definition
definition
  • Additional sentence structures

Conditional clauses
Exceptions
Exclamations and other constructions

definition
definition


Arabic VISL Homepage | Arabic symbol set | User guide | Transliteration standard






Primary constituents


1. Noun clauses without verbs (abbr.: cln<-v>) -> top


TR1.1 al-kitaab hadiith

TR1.2 hiya muwaZZafa

TR1.3 huwa miSriy

TR1.4 hadhihi hiya al-maktaba

TR1.5 hunaak qalam

TR1.6 hadhaa baab

TR1.7 fii al-kitaab Suura

TR1.8 'ayna al-maktab ?

TR1.9 hal 'anta suudaaniy ?

TR1.10 'inna al-rajul kariim  



2. Noun clauses containing verb (abbr.: cln <v>) -> top


TR2.1 al-ra'iis yazuur faransaa

TR2.2 al-wuzaraa' baHathuu al-mushkila

TR2.3 al-wuzaraa' *aqaduu ijtimaa*an 'ams

TR2.4 al-*amiid yamnaH al-Tullaab shahaadaat al-yawm

TR2.5 al-malika ijtama*at b-il-wuzaraa' 'ams

TR2.6 al-ra'iis yusaafir ghadan 'ilaa faransaa

TR2.7 'anaa 'asta*id l-il-intikhaabaat

TR2.8 'anti tuSbiHiina 'ajmal ma*a "loreal"

TR2.9 'anta tuHaafiZ *alaa al-sayyaara ma*a "shell"

TR2.10 "loreal" tamnaHu-ki 'ajmal al-alwaan

TR2.11 la*alla al-jaw yataHassan



3. Verb clauses (abbr.: clv) -> top


TR3.1 jaa' al-mudarris

TR3.2 sharibtu al-qahwa

TR3.3 yaqra' al-Taalib kitaaban

TR3.4 mataa kataba al-kaatib al-maqaala?

TR3.5 manaHat al-dawla al-fuqaraa' al-musaa*adaat

TR3.6 tamnaH al-jaami*a al-Tullaab shahaadaat *ind al-takharruj

TR3.7 'a*Taytu-hu al-kitaab fii al-madrasa

TR3.8 'a*jaba al-film al-mushaahidiin

TR3.9 waSala al-zaa'iruun 'ilaa al-matHaf

TR3.10 tabda' al-sikriitiiraat al-*amal SabaaHan

TR3.11 sa-tuntij al-maSaani* sayyaaraat jadiida hadhaa al-*aam

TR3.12 hal baHathtum *an al-kitaab fii al-maktaba?

TR3.13 fii al-SabaaH yaqra' 'ab-ii al-jaraa'id

TR3.14 khudh al-qalam

TR3.15 'uktubii al-risaala

TR3.16 idhhabuu 'ilaa al-madrasa

TR3.17 li-nadhhab 'ilaa al-jaami*a

TR3.18 fa-l-nadhhab 'ilaa al-jaami*a

TR3.19 'a*Tii-nii 'iyyaahaa

TR3.20 wulida fariid fii bayruut

TR3.21 limaadhaa tu*tabar tuunis baladan siyaaHiyyan?



 

4. Negated clauses -> top


TR4.1 lastu muwaZZafan

TR4.2 al-kitaab laysa qadiiman

TR4.3 laysa fariid al-mudarris

TR4.4 laysa fii al-kitaab Suura

TR4.5 laysat fii al-kitaab Suura

TR4.6 laysa hunaak qalam

TR4.7 laa Taalib naajiH

TR4.8 huwa miSriy, 'a-laysa kadhaalik ?

TR4.9 la yuHibb al-qahwa

TR4.10 laa tadkhul al-daar

TR4.11 laa tatakallamuu athnaa' al-muHaaDara

TR4.12 lam yusaafir al-ra'iis

TR4.13 al-wuzaraa' lam yajtami*uu fii bayruut

TR4.14 al-malik lan yastaqbil al-wuzaraa' ghadan



 

Groups

TR5. Noun groups (abbr.:g) -> top


TR5.1 al-bint al-Saghiira jamiila

TR5.2 hal katabat al-sikiirtiira al-jadiida hadhihi al-risaala?

TR5.3 al-'adiib al-mashhuur yaSil ghadan

TR5.4 shaahadtu filman jadiidan 'ams

TR5.5 al-sayyaara 'amaam al-daar al-jadiida wa al-*aaliya

TR5.6 ra'iis al-jumhuuriyya *aqada ijtimaa*an Tawiilan ma*a al-wuzaraa'

TR5.7 yaSil mudiir al-madrasa al-jadiid al-yawm

TR5.8 sayyaara al-mudiir al-jadiida khalf al-madrasa

TR5.9 al-bint al-Saghiira jamiila al-wajh

TR5.10 kul sha*b la-hu *aadaatu-hu wa taqaaliidu-hu

TR5.11 'a-hadhaa qalamu-ka yaa mudarris al-Saf?

TR5.12 man zawju-ki 'ayyatu-haa al-mar'a?

TR5.13 maa ismu-ka yaa 'ustaadh?

TR5.14 qalam man hadhaa?

TR5.15 'ay kitaab qara'ta?

TR5.16 mawduu* muHaaDara al-yawm huwa Huquuq al-mar'a al-*arabiyya

TR5.17 takallamtu ma*a 'abii-ka 'ams

TR5.18 hal waSala 'akhuu-ki?

TR5.19 shaahadtu 'abaa-hum fii dhalika al-shaari*

TR5.20 zaara-nii 'aHad al-'aSdiqaa' 'ams

TR5.21 sanuqaabil 'iHdaa Sadiiqaati-naa 'amaam al-madrasa

TR5.22 sawfa yalbasuun nafs al-malaabis ghadan

TR5.23 shaahadtu kilaa al-rajulayn fii al-maktab

TR5.24 al-malik Husayn istaqbala al-ra'iis klintun

TR5.25 lan yatazawwaj hadhaa al-rajul tilka al-mar'a 'abadan

TR5.26 lam yaHduth mithl hadhaa min qabl

TR5.27 lam yaHDur ba*D al-Tullaab al-yawm 'ilaa al-madrasa

TR5.28 lam yanjaHuu li-*adam al-ta*aawun bayna-hum




6. Adjective groups (abbr.: g) -> top


TR6.1 al-Suura jamiila jiddan

TR6.2 hal huwa mashhuur bi-shakl kabiir?

TR6.3 'anaa 'aTwal min 'akh-ii

TR6.4 al-vatiikaan 'aSghar dawla fii al-*aalam

TR6.5 al-'ahraam 'akbar maa shaahadtu min 'aathaar

TR6.6 al-ra'iisaan kharajaa masruurayn kathiiran min al-ijtimaa*

TR6.7 kaanat al-mudiira awwal man qaabala-nii fii al-maktab

TR6.8 al-daar laysat ba*iida *an al-madrasa

TR6.9 lam 'ara-hu sa*iidan 'abadan mithl al-yawm

TR6.10 hiya ghayr jamiila wa ghayr laTiifa 'ayDan




7.Verb groups (abbr.: g) -> top


TR7.1 kaana yaqra' al-jariida fii maktabi-hi *aadatan

TR7.2 maadha kunta sa-taquul *inda'idhin?

TR7.3 lam takuunii taquuliin shay'an 'abadan

TR7.4 limaadhaa 'akhadha al-rajul yaDHak kathiiran?

TR7.5 al-wuzaraa' bada'uu yakhrujuun min al-ijtimaa*

TR7.6 istamarrat al-mudiira ta*mal fii maktabi-ha Hattaa al-masaa'

TR7.7 qad *araftum al-Haqiiqa al-'aan

TR7.8 qad tusaafiriin 'ilaa dimashq ghadan

TR7.9 al-mujtami*uun yakaaduun yaSiluun 'ilaa ittifaaq

TR7.10 maa ziltu 'a*mal mudarrisan fii hadhihi al-madrasa




8. Preposition groups (abbr.: g) -> top


TR8.1 al-rajul min tuunis

TR8.2 saafartu b-il-Taa'ira

TR8.3 kayfa saafarta 'ilaa miSr?

TR8.4 min 'ayna 'anti?

TR8.5 al-kutub fawq al-Taawila

TR8.6 al-ra'iis yaSil ba*d ghadan

TR8.7 al-rajul la-hu 'ibnaan

TR8.8 sha*ru-haa 'aswad k-al-layl

TR8.9 hal tuHibbuuna al-qahwa biduun sukkar?

TR8.10 saa*adatu-hum min khilaal 'aHad al-'aSdiqaa'

TR8.11 saafaruu l-il-*amal fii al-kuwait

TR8.12 lan 'uqaabila-haa ba*d al-yawm

TR8.13 al-maktaba laysat fii-haa kutub jadiida

TR8.14 lam 'uqaabil-hu mundhu waqt Tawiil



Subordinate clauses

9. Noun clauses (abbr.: cl) -> top


TR9.1 dhakara muraasil al-jariida 'anna al-ijtimaa* qad bada'a

TR9.2 hal sami*tum 'anna al-imtiHaan kaana sahlan jiddan?

TR9.3 qaala al-mudarris 'inna-hu mariiD

TR9.4 yaquul al-mudarris 'inna al-imtiHaan sahl

TR9.5 'anaa miSriy lakinna zawjat-ii lubnaaniyya

TR9.6 min al-ma*ruuf 'anna tuunis balad jamiil jiddan

TR9.7 tataSarraf ka'anna-haa bint Saghiira

TR9.8 lam yaHDur 'ilaa al-madrasa al-yawm li'anna-hu mariiD

TR9.9 yajib 'an taghsil yaday-ka qabla al-'akl

TR9.10 kaana yajib *alay-kum 'an tastaqbiluu-hum fii al-maTaar

TR9.11 lam 'asmaH la-ka bi-'an tanSarif al-'aan

TR9.12 'a-turiidaan 'an tata*allamaa al-lugha al-arabiyya?

TR9.13 hiya laa tastaTii* 'an tatakallam al-lugha al-yaabaaniyya

TR9.14 laa yumkinukum 'an tudakhkhinuu fii al-Saf

TR9.15 hal tuHibbiin 'an tushaahidii al-'aflaam al-'ajnabiyya?

TR9.16 'anaa a*mal mudarrisan 'amma zawjat-ii fa-ta*mal Tabiiba

TR9.17 'anaa a*mal mudarrisan 'amma zawjat-ii fa-Tabiiba

TR9.18 al-jaw fii al-Sayf daafi' 'amma fii al-shitaa' fa-baarid jiddan





10. Relative clauses (abbr.: cl) -> top


TR10.1 al-mudarris alladhii yudarris al-iqtiSaad *iraaqiy

TR10.2 qaabaltu al-bint allatii ta*mal fii al-maktaba

TR10.3 'arsaltu rasaa'il 'ilaa kul al-'aSdiqaa' alladhiina ta*arraftu *alay-him fii miSr

TR10.4 qaabaltu bintan ta*mal fii al-maktaba

TR10.5 qara'a fariid kitaaban ishtaraa-hu min maktaba al-jaami*a

TR10.6 kaana bayna-hum zaa'iran laa yatakallam al-lugha al-*arabiyya



11. Adverbial clauses (abbr.: cl) -> top


TR11.1 kaanat 'ajmal qabla 'an tatazawwaj

TR11.2 'aSbaHa mashhuuran ba*da 'an nashara kitaaba-hu

TR11.3 naama al-walad ba*da 'an 'akala Ta*aama-hu

TR11.4 al-ra'iis yusaafir 'ilaa washinTun ba*da 'an yajtami* b-il-wuzaraa'

TR11.5 sawfa 'azuur faransaa ba*da 'an 'azuur iTaaliyaa

TR11.6 hal istaqbaltumuu-hum *indamaa waSaluu 'ilaa al-maTaar?

TR11.7 lan 'uqaabila-ki al-yawm Haythu 'uqaabilu-ki kul yawm

TR11.8 sawfa yuqaabilu-haa ghadan Haythu qaabala-haa 'ams

TR11.9 hal shaahadti-hi Hiina kharaja min al-Saf?

TR11.10 *indamaa HaDarat al-muwaZZafaat 'ilaa al-maktab kaana al-mudiir qad inSaraf



Special Arabic constructions

12. Adverbials: absolute object (abbr.: Aao) -> top


TR12.1 zaada *adad al-sukkaan fii miSr ziyaadatan kabiiratan

TR12.2 ra'iis al-wuzaraa' yastaqbil al-mushaarikiin fii al-mu'tamar aHsan istiqbaal

TR12.3 'aHtarim zawjat-ii kul al-iHtiraam

TR12.4 ba*da 'an ya'kul yanaam *amiiqan



13. Adverbials: object of purpose (abbr.: Aop) -> top


TR13.1 saafara 'ilaa al-sa*uudiyya baHthan *an *amal hunaak

TR13.2 kaana mu'tamaran naajiHan natiijatan li-juhuud al-mushaarikiin fii-hi

TR13.3 ji'tu 'ilaa al-qaahira Hubban fii ta*allum al-lugha al-*arabiyya



14. Adverbials: Haal-construction (abbr.:Ah) -> top

 

TR14.1 kharaja min al-Saf DaaHikan

TR14.2 kharaja min al-Saf Haamilan kutuba-hu

TR14.3 kharaja min al-Saf yaHmil kutuba-hu

TR14.4 kharaja min al-Saf wa huwa yaHmil kutuba-hu

TR14.5 al-waziira madlin 'ulbraayt taSil 'ilaa al-qaahira Haamilatan risaala haamma min al-ra'iis klintun

TR14.6 raja*a 'ilaa baladi-hi wa qad HaSala *alaa shahaada al-duktuura

TR14.7 raja*uu 'ilaa baladi-him wa lam yaHSuluu *alaa al-duktuura

TR14.8 HaDara 'ilaa al-maktab wa ma*a-hu zawjatu-hu

TR14.9 shaahadtu al-walad waaqifan muntaZiran 'aSdiqaa'a-hu

TR14.10 kharajna wa hunna Haziinaat wa *udna wa hunna sa*iidaat



15. Adverbials of specification (abbr.: At) -> top


TR15.1 HaDara thalaathuuna Taaliban faqaT 'ilaa al-Saf

TR15.2 faransaa 'aqal 'intaajan l-il-sayyaaraat min al-yaabaan

TR15.3 'anaa 'akthar min-ka khibratan

TR15.4 zaadat al-qaahira sukkaanan

TR15.5 qanaat al-suways muhimma tijaariyyan wa istiraatiijiyyan

TR15.6 zara*tu al-Hadiiqa wardan

TR15.7 kam Taaliban fii al-madrasa?



16. Conditional clauses (abbr.: cl) -> top


TR16.1 'idhaa jaa'a al-mudiir takallamtu ma*a-hu

TR16.2 'idhaa kaana al-jaw jamiilan saafarnaa 'ilaa al-'iskandariyya

TR16.3 sawfa tushaahiduun al-'ahraam 'idhaa saafartum 'ilaa miSr

TR16.4 'in darasti najaHti

TR16.5 'in tadrusii tanjaHii

TR16.6 law darasa la-najaHa

TR16.7 law lam yadrus maa najaHa

TR16.8 law 'an-nii 'a*rifu 'anna al-Hubb khaTiir jiddan maa 'aHbabt

TR16.9 lan 'adhhab 'ilaa al-Hafla 'illaa 'idhaa ji'ta ma*-ii

TR16.10 sawfa tatazawwaja-hu Hattaa 'idhaa lam yuwaafiquu *alay-hi

TR16.11 'udrus tanjaH



17. Exceptions -> top


TR17.1 ma jaa'a 'illaa rajul

TR17.2 jaa'a jamii* al-Tullaab 'illaa Taalib

TR17.3 qara'tu jaraa'id al-yawm 'illaa jariida

TR17.4 najaHa al-Tullaab ghayr Taalib

TR17.5 lam yaSil al-zaa'iruun ghayr zaa'ir

TR17.6 maa najaHa ghayr Taalib



18. Other constructions -> top

TR18.1 maa 'ajmal al-Suura!

TR18.2 yaa-la-haa min 'imra'a!

TR18.3 qaabaltu al-rajul nafsa-hu al-yawm

TR18.4 sawfa yajii' al-Tullaab kullu-hum 'ilaa al-muHaaDara

TR18.5 ta*aawanna naHnu fii hadhaa al-*amal

TR18.6 lam takun qabiiHa faqaT bal sayi'a 'ayDan





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Mahmoud Nadim Shakir & Gunna Funder Hansen, last updated: january 2000














Definitions:



Definition - Noun clause (abbr: cln):

A noun clause (also: nominal sentence or jumla ismiya in Arabic) is a sentence which begins with a noun or a pronoun. Sometimes there is a particle in front of the noun. The noun / pronoun normally functions as the subject of the sentence (in Arabic mubtada') while the rest of the sentence is termed "predicate" (in Arabic khabar).

There are two main types of noun clauses:

1. Noun clause without verb (abbr: cln<-v>)

A "noun clause without verb" is a noun clause which does not contain a verb: These kind of sentences often occur in Arabic, as the verb "to be" is always omitted in the present indicative, for instance:

  • hunaak rajul
  • al-bint jamiila
  • hal 'anta suudaaniy?

there (is) a man
the girl (is) beautiful
(are) you sudani?


Arabic does not allow a sentence to start with an indefinite noun: In this case, the indefinite noun moves from a sentence initial position to a post-predicate position. It still is a noun clause without verb, though, even if the sentence begins with a preposition and a noun.

  • fii al-kitaab Suura
  • ma*ka miftaH?

in the book (there is) a picture
with you a key? (=do you have a key?)



2. Noun clause containing a verb (abbr: cln<v>)

A "noun clause containing a verb" is a noun clause which contains a verb congruous with the subject, for instance:

  • huwa yamshii
  • al-bint taskun hunaak
  • 'ab-ii sa-yusaafir ilaa 'amriika

he walks
the girl lives there
my father will travel to America




Back to the Arabic transliterated corpus






Definition - Verb clause (abbr: clv):

A verb clause (also: verbal sentence or jumla fi*liya in Arabic) is a sentence which begins with a verb (in Arabic fi*l). The verb either includes the subject or is followed by an explicit subject (fa*il), for instance:

  • kataba
  • kataba al-rajul
  • kataba al-rajul risaalatan

he wrote
the man wrote
the man wrote a letter




Back to the Arabic transliterated corpus






Definition - Negated clause:

A negated clause is a clause containing one of the negative particles: laa, lam, lan, maa and ghair, or the negative verb laysa, for instance:

  • laa yuHibb al-qahwa
  • lam yashrab al-qahwa
  • lan yashrab al-qahwa
  • maa yuHibb al-qahwa
  • maa sharaba al-qahwa
  • al-qahwa ghair saaHina
  • laysat fii al-finjaan qahwa

He doesn't like coffee
He didn't drink the coffee
He won't drink the coffee
He doesn't like coffee
He didn't drink the coffee
The coffe is not hot
There is no coffee in the cup (there is not in the cup coffee)




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Definition - groups: (abbr: g)

 

A group is by definition a constituent which consists of a HEAD (kerneled in Danish) with one or more DEPENDENTS. Consequently, in ArabVISL there are only two functions possible within the group: H (head) and D (dependent).

A group is recognized and labelled by the head of the group. In Arabic there are four basic types of group:

  • Adjective group
  • Noun group
  • Preposition group
  • Verb group

  • Adjective group

    Head

    • al-waajib jayyid jiddan
    • tadrus akthar min al-laazim
    • The homework (is) very good
    • You study more than necessary

    Dependant

    • al-waajib jayyid jiddan
    • tadrus akthar min al-laazim
    • The homework (is) very good
    • You study more than necessary


  • Noun group

    Head

    • kitaabu-ka muthiir jiddan
    • ishtaraa sayyara jadiida
    • your book is very interesting
    • he bought a new car

    Dependant

     

    • kitaabu-ka muthiir jiddan
    • ishtaraa sayyara jadiida
    • your book is very interesting
    • he bought a new car


  • Preposition group

    Head

    • mataa tadhhab 'ilaa al-qaahira?
    • al-ra'iis clinton mashhuur fii al-*aalam al-*arabiy
    • When do you go to Cairo?
    • President Clinton (is) well-known in the Arab World

    Dependant

     

    • mataa tadhhab 'ilaa al-qaahira?
    • al-ra'iis clinton mashhuur fii al-*aalam al-*arabiy

    • When do you go to Cairo?
    • President Clinton (is) well-known in the Arab World


  • Verb group

    Head

    • sa-'arji* ba*d saa*a
    • *indama waSaltu kaana al-film qad bada'a
    • I will be back after an hour
    • When I arrived the film had begun

    Dependant

    • sa-'arji* ba*d saa*a
    • *indama waSaltu kaana al-film qad bada'a
    • I will be back after an hour
    • When I arrived the film had begun



Back to the Arabic transliterated corpus






Definition - Subordinate clause (abbr: cls)

A subordinate clause is a sentence which functions as a constituent (subject, object, object of preposition, adverbial or as a dependant to a head) within a main clause. The clause functions within a subordinate clause are the same as those within main clauses with one addition: SUB.


  • laa yumkin 'an yadrus al-yawm
  • qaala al-mudarris 'inna-hu mariiD
  • 'ash*ur bi-'annanii waHiida
  • qaabaltu bintan ta*mal fi-l-maktab
  • akaltu al-Ta*m alladhi Tabakhat 'umm-ii
  • kaanat 'ajmal qabl 'an tatazawwaj
  • sawfa 'azuur faransaa ba*da 'an azuur al-daanimark
  • 'idhaa jaa'a al-mudiir takallamtu ma*ahu
  • it is not possible that you study today
  • the teacher said that he was ill
  • I feel that I'm lonely
  • I met a girl (who) work in the office
  • I ate the food which my mother prepared
  • she was more beautiful before she married
  • I will visit France after I visit Denmark
  • If the director came I would speak with him



Back to the Arabic transliterated corpus

 




Definition - Adverbial: Absolute object (abbr: Aao)

An absolute object (also: cognate accusative or maf*uul muTlaq in Arabic) is a construction where the verb is followed by its own verbal noun, e.g. "I helped him a great help", meaning "I helped him a lot".

The absolute object is in the accusative case, as objects normally are in Arabic, and therefore carries the suffix &endash;an in the indefinite form. It functions, however, as a modifyer of the verb &endash; a function which is normally termed "adverbial" in traditional Western grammar. In order to catch the Western notion of adverbial as well as the Arabic notion of object, we have labelled the term "Adverbial: absolute object."

The absolute object may consist of a verbal noun alone or may occur with an adjective, a demonstrative pronoun, a genitive or a subordinate clause. In some cases, the verbal noun itself is omitted, thus leaving e.g. an adjective alone as a cognate adverbial.

  • Darabtu-hu Darban
  • Darabtu-hu Darban shadiidan
  • Darabtu-hu shadiidan
  • I hit-him a hit (meaning: I hit him)
  • I hit-him a hard hit (meaning: I hit him hard)
  • I hit-him a hard (hit) (meaning: I hit him hard)



Back to the Arabic transliterated corpus






Definition - Adverbial: object of purpose (abbr: Aop)

An object of purpose (also: accusative of reasons or maf*uul lahu in Arabic) expresses the motive or the reason why the verbal action takes place, or why the subject performs the action (Cantarino, III, p. 172). The object of purpose can be determined as the answer to the question "why" (limaadha in Arabic).

The object of purpose is in the accusative case, as objects normally are in Arabic, and therefore carries the suffix &endash;an in the indefinite form. It functions, however, as a modifyer of the verb &endash; a function which is normally termed "adverbial" in traditional Western grammar. In order to catch the western notion of adverbial as well as the Arabic notion of object, we have labelled the term "Adverbial: object of purpose"

The object of purpose is usually a verbal noun which may be followed by a preposition group, for instance:

  • harabtu khaufan
  • harabtu khaufan min al-maut
  • fa*altu maa fa*altu hubban li-bintii
  • I fled (out of) fear
  • I fled (out of) fear for death
  • I did what I did (out of) love for my daughter

The object of purpose in the accusative case can be replaced by the preposition li- (in order to) and a sentence or a verbal noun, for instance:

  • fa*altu maa fa*altu li-hubbin li-bintii




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Definition - Adverbials: The Haal-construction or condition (Abbr: Ah)


The Arabic Haal-construction (also: circumstancial accusative or accusative of state or condition) expresses a temporary circumstance of the noun to which it refers (Cantarino, II, p. 186), for instance: "He came out of the house smiling" or "She watched him her mouth open". It usually refers to the subject of the sentence, though it can refer to objects or objects of prepositions and occasionally to a whole statement. It can be determined as the answer to the question "how" (kayfa).

The Haal is in the accusative case, which is the case used for objects in Arabic, and therefore it carries the suffix -an in the indefinite form. According to traditional Western grammar, however, it has an adverbial meaning, so in order to catch the western notion of adverbial as well as the Arabic notion of object, we have labelled the term "Adverbial: haal"

The Haal is usually an active participle or a verbal noun (both grammatically undefined) or a full clause introduced by wa (and):

  • al-Taalib dakhala al-Saf Haamilan kutuba-hu
  • al-Taalib dakhala al-Saf wa fii yaddi-hi kutuba-hu
  • al-Taalib dakhala al-Saf wa huwwa yaHmilu kutuba-hu
  • mashaa ilayhi muhaddidan
  • ra'a fama-hu maftuHan
  • The student entered the classroom carrying his books
  • The student entered the classroom and in his hands his books (meaning: with his books in his hands)
  • The student entered the classroom and he carries his books (meaning: carrying his books)
  • He walked towards him threateningly
  • He watched his mouth open




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Definition - Adverbial of specification: tamyiiz

An adverbial of specification most often consists of a noun in the accusative, thus carrying the suffix -an in the indefinite form, sometimes it is a noun followed by a preposition group. The adverbial of specification specifies the status or action expressed by the sentence. In opposition to the cognate adverbial and most other adverbials of specific Arabic constructions, the adverbial of specification is not necessarily derived from a verb, for instance:

  • al-quds madiina muhimma diiniyan
  • sa*uudiyya 'akthar 'intaajan l-il-bitruul min al-kuwait


An important variant of the adverbial of specification is this: Nouns in connection with numerals. Note, that the noun is in this case considered an adverbial of specification - that is, a specification of the number in question, for instance:

  • ja'a ishruuna rajulan
  • *ind-ii thalathuuna qalaman


A similar version is the specification of wheights and mesures like raTal (a pint), jubb (a pot) etc.

Finally, to this class belongs also the accusative after the interrogation kam (how much, how many), for instance:

  • kam safhatan qarati ?


This last case is an example of how traditional Arabic grammar sometimes conflicts with the traditional western approach.

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Definition - Conditional clause

A conditional clause is an adverbial clause expressing a conditional state. It contains one of the conjunctions 'idhaa, law or 'in. Note, that the conjunction is omitted if an imperative is used, for instance:


  • 'idhaa darasti najaHti
  • 'udrus tanjaH




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Definition - Exceptions

Under construction

 






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Helle Lykke Nielsen & Gunna Funder Hansen, last updated: january 2001

 

 


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