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Arabic Symbol Set


KEY TO SYMBOLS
DANSK - DANISH

Functions (specified with CAPITAL letters)
Types of Subject: S, <S>.
Types of Object: O1, O2, O3.
Types of Adverbial: A, Ac, Ah, Ap, At.
Noun Groups
Verb Groups
Adjective Groups
Preposition Groups

Forms (specified with small letters)
Types of Clause: clv, cln<-v>, cln<v>, cl
Types of Pronoun: pron-pers, pron-pos, pron-dem, pron-rel



1. FUNCTIONS (SPECIFIED WITH CAPITAL LETTERS)

1.1. UTTERANCE (OR DISCOURSE) FUNCTIONS ->top

We operate with FIVE utterance functions: STA, QUE, COM, EXC, PER.

STA

Statement

  • waSala 'ams.
  • maa fahimt al-su'aal.
  • sa-'arja* ba*D saa*a.
  • laa.

QUE

Question

  • hal ta*rif ism hadha al-rajul?
  • man huwa ibn khalduun?
  • maa ra'i-ki fii hadhihi al-qaSSa?
  • madha tuHib an ta'kul?
  • limaadha darast al-lugha al-*arabiyya?
  • mataa tarji*?
  • kam al-saa*a?

COM

Command

  • mamnuu* al-tadkhiin!
  • ijlis min faDlak!
  • uskutuu!
  • laa tadhhab!
  • linadhhab
  • hayaa!
  • mahlaan!
  • hadhaari 'an tatakallam!

EXC

Exclamation

  • 'abadan fii Hayaatii!
  • ghayr ma*quul!
  • allaahu akbar!
  • maa 'ajmal al-bint!

PER

Performative

  • a*lantukumaa zawjayn
  • 'asmaytu-hu "Mohammed"


1.2. CLAUSE FUNCTIONS (functions which constituents may have within a clause) -> top

1.2.1. BASIC CLAUSE FUNCTIONS

We operate with FIVE basic clause functions: S, V, O, P, A.

S

Subject

  • al-yaman balad *arabiy
  • 'ana Taliba fii al-jaami*a
  • waSala al-ra'iis ilaa al-qaahira 'ams

V

Verbal*

  • 'uHibb al-Ta*aam al-*arabiy.
  • la 'a*rif man hadha.
  • yajib 'an takuun musta*id fii al-saa*a al-saadisa.
  • man kataba hadha al-kitaab?
  • ijlisuu hunaak!

O

Object

  • 'arsala al-rajul al-risaala 'ams
  • 'uHibbu-hu kathiiran
  • la 'a*rif man hadha
  • qultu la-hu 'inna al-bint kaanat mariiDa

P

Predicate

  • al-niil nahr Tawiil
  • al-jaww mushmish
  • huwa 'ustaadh fii al-jaami*a
  • kanaat al-bint jamiila jiddan
  • aSbaHa al-walad 'akbar wa 'akbar

A

Adverbial

  • shaahadtu al-bint 'ams.
  • mataa nabda' al-dars?
  • qaabaltu-hu fii al-shaari*.
  • l-il-asaf al-shadiid lan 'arji*
  • qultu la-hu 'inna al-mushkila kaanat Sa*ba.


1.2.2. ADDITIONAL CLAUSE FUNCTIONS -> top

Three of the five basic functions can be further subdivided. These are S,O, A. This gives rise to the following subtypes:

  • S: S, <S>
  • O: O1, O2, O3
  • A: A, Ac, Ah, Ap, At

1.2.2.1. TYPES OF SUBJECT

We distinguish between Subjects which are formally expressed, S, and subjects implied in the verb <S>.

S

Subjectx

  • 'anaa salwa
  • jamaal Taalib fii al-jama*a
  • miSr dawla *arabiyya
  • yatakallam al-rajul fii al-haatif
  • 'ams kataba hadha al-rajul risaalatan Tawiila
  • al-bint allatii 'a*rifu-haa darasat al-lugha al-inkliiziyya fi al-madrasa

<S>

Subject implied in the verb

  • ta'allamtu al-lugha al-*arabiyya fii miSr
  • maa fahima al-dars
  • mataa sa-tarji*?
x In traditional Arabic grammar, the subject is further subdivided into subjects in nominal sentences (mubtada') and subject in verbal sentences (faa*il). This distinction is ignored in this transliteratied version of Arabic VISL.

1.2.2.2 TYPES OF OBJECT

Where appropriate, we distinguish between first, second and third objects (O1, O2 and O3)

O1

First object

  • kataba al-mudiir rasaalatan
  • darasat al-bint al-waajib
  • 'afhama al-mudarris al-Tullaab al-baHth
  • 'a*Taa al-walad Sadiiqahu hadiyyatan

O2

Second object

  • 'acTaa al-walad Sadiiqahu hadiyyatan
  • 'afhama al-mudarris al-Tullaab al-baHth

O3

Third object

  • 'afhama al-mudarris al-Tullaab al-baHth waafiyyan

1.2.2.3 TYPES OF ADVERBIAL

We distinguish between the specific arabic constructions maf*uul muTlaq or cognate adverbials (Ac), Haal or circumstancial advebials (Oh), maf*uul lahu or adverbials of purpose (Op) and tamyiiz or adverbials of specification (Ot). For further definition, go to the closed corpus and click the definition-link of your choise.

A

Adverbial

  • sa-uqaabilu-haa ghadin
  • mataa 'arsalti al-risaala?
  • lam yusaafir al-rajul ilaa bilaadi-hi

Ac

Cognate adverbial - maf*uul muTlaq

Cognate adverbials consist of a verbal noun derived from the verb used in the sentence as a dependant.

  • taqaddamat al-Sinaa*a taqadduman kabiiran
  • intasharat al-lugha al-'injliiziyya intishaaran waasi*an
  • 'anaa 'aHtarim mudarrisii kull al-iHtaraam
  • istaqbala al-ra'iis al-Duyyuuf aHsan istiqbaal

Ah

Circumstancial adverbial -Haal

Circumstancial adverbials describe the circumnstances at the time when the action of the main verb takes place. It usually refers to the subject of the sentece (the faa*il), though it can refer to objects or objects of prepositions.

  • dakhala al-rajul al-bait wa huwwa yaHmilu kutuba-hu
  • dakhala al-rajul al-bait wa fii yaddi-hi kutuba-hu
  • dakhala al-rajulu al-bait Haamilan kutuba-hu
  • raja*a al-rajulu ilaa baladi-hi mutazawwijan

Ap

Adverbial of purpose - maf*uul lahu

Adverbials of purpose describe the purpose of the action expressed by the main verb.

  • saafara 'ilaa 'amriika baHthan *an *amal
  • iftaHa al-waziir maktaba jadiida tashjii*an l-il-*ilm

At

Adverbial of specification - tamyiiz

  • ja'a ishruuna rajulan
  • al-sa*uudiyya 'akthar 'intaajan l-il-bitruul min al -kuwait
  • 'anaa 'aqall min-ka tajribatan
  • al-quds madiina muhimma diiniyan


1.2.3. SUBORDINATE FUNCTIONS -> top

The clause functions within subordinate clauses are the same as those within main clauses, with one addition: the subordinator (SUB).

SUB

Subordinator

  • qaala l-ii 'inna-hu kaana mariiD
  • qaalat 'inna-haa satakuun hunaa
  • 'akhbir-nii 'idha ja'a
  • 'atasaa'al 'in kaana 'alaa haq
  • huwa ghaDib li'anna-ka lam taktub la-hu
  • qara'tu al-risala ba*d 'an kharaja
  • huwa laysa kabiiran kamaa taSawwart
  • huwa ghaniy li-daraja 'anna-hu yamluk sit sayyarat


1.2.4. COMPOUND UNIT FUNCTIONS -> top

A compound unit contains two or more co-ordinated words, groups or clauses (CJT) joint by a co-ordinator (CO).

CJT

Conjunct

  • 'anaa 'askun fii al-qaahira 'amma 'usrat-ii taskun fii 'iskandariyya
  • lam yakuun ghabii faqaT bal kasuul 'ayDan

CO

Co-ordinator

  • 'anaa 'askun fii al-qaahira 'amma 'usrat-ii taskun fii 'iskandariyya
  • lam yakuun ghabii faqaT bal kasuul 'ayDan


1.3. GROUP FUNCTIONS (functions which constituents may have within a group) -> top

A group is by definition a HEAD with one or more DEPENDENTS. Consequently, in our system there are only TWO functions which constituents may have within a group. These are H (Head) and DEP (dependent).

The basic groups can be recognized (and labeled) by the head of the group.This gives us four basic types of group:

  • noun groups
  • verb groups
  • adjective groups
  • preposition groups


1.3.1. NOUN GROUPS -> top

H

Head

  • al-bint danimarkiyya
  • kitaabu-ka muthiir jiddan
  • ishtaraa sayyara jadiida
  • hadhihi al-kutub ghaaliyya
  • al-sayyara allatti ishtaraytu-haa Hamra'

DEP

Dependent

  • al-bint danimarkiyya
  • kitaabu-ka muthiir jiddan
  • ishtaraa sayyara jadiida
  • hadhihi al-kutub ghaaliyya
  • al-sayyara allatti ishtaraytu-haa Hamra'


1.3.2. VERB GROUPS ->top

H

Head

  • kaanat al-bint taqra' al-qur'aan yawm al-jum*a
  • kuntu 'uriid 'an 'aquul la-ka inna-nii 'uHibbu-ka
  • sa-'arji* ba*d saa*a
  • kaana yaTlub diinaaran min-nii
  • *indama waSaltu kaana al-film qad bada'a

DEP

Dependent

  • kaanat al-bint taqra' al-qur'aan yawm al-jum*a
  • kuntu 'uriid 'an 'aquul la-ka inna-nii 'uHibbu-ka
  • sa'arji* ba*d saa*a
  • kaana yaTlub diinaaran min-nii
  • *indama waSaltu kaana al-film qad bada'a


1.3.3. ADJECTIVE GROUPS -> top

H

Head

  • Kaanat ma*quula tamaman
  • maa shaahadtu-hu ghaDbaan mithla dhalik
  • al-waajib jayyid jiddan
  • tadrus akthar min al-laazim
  • hal huwa kabiir bidaraja kafiya?
  • hiya laysat munasiba 'abadan

DEP

Dependent

  • Kaanat ma*quula tamaman
  • maa shaahadtu-hu ghaDbaan mithla dhalik
  • al-waajib jayyid jiddan
  • tadrus akthar min al-laazim
  • hal huwa kabiir bidaraja kafiya?
  • hiya laysat munasiba 'abadan


1.3.4. PREPOSITION GROUPS -> top

H

Head

  • mataa tadhhab 'ilaa al-qaahira?
  • istaqbaltu risaalatan min 'abii 'ams
  • al-ra'iis clinton mashhuur fii al-*aalam al-*arabiy
  • HaSalat al-Taaliba *alaa shahaadat al-duktuuraah

DEP

Dependent

  • mataa tadhhab 'ilaa al-qaahira?
  • istaqbaltu risaalatan min 'abii 'ams
  • al-ra'iis clinton mashhuur fii al-*aalam al-*arabiy
  • HaSalat al-Taaliba *alaa shahaadat al-duktuuraah


2. FORMS (specified with small letters)

We operate with three types of forms: cl, g, "word class".

2.1. CLAUSES -> top

Clause is abbreviated "cl", which can represent a main clause or a subordinate clause, finite or non-finite. As in traditional Arabic grammar, we distinguish between two main types of clauses: verbal clauses, clv, which start with a verb, and nominal clauses, cln, which start with a noun. The latter is further subdivided into clauses which contain a verb, cln<v>, and clauses which do not contain a verb, cln<-v>.

It should be noted that, when deciding the type of clauses, we disregard all sentence initial adverbials (adverbs, prepositional groups, negations etc).

 

clv

verbal clause

  • 'a*rif 'ayna al-maT*am
  • shaahada al-rajul bintan jamiilatan fi al-shaari*
  • kunt 'uriid 'an 'aquul la-ka 'inna-nii 'uHibbuka
  • ijlis hunaa!
  • 'ams shaahadtu al-bint
  • mataa nabda' al-dars?

cln<-v>

nominal clause without verb

  • 'anaa Taalib fii jaami*at al-qaahira
  • ism-ii muhammad
  • miSr dawla *arabiyya

cln<v>

nominal clause containing a verb

  • al-rajul shaahada bintan jamiilatan fi al-shaari*
  • 'anta tuHibbunii
  • al-mara'a al-sa*uudiyya la tatamakkan min al-mashii fii al-shaari* biduun zawjihaa
  • qultu la-hu 'inna-nii kunt mariiDa

cl

subordinated or coordinated clause

  • qultu la-hu 'inna-nii 'uHibbu-haa
  • 'akaltu al-Ta*m alladhi Tabakhat 'umm-ii


2.2. GROUPS -> top

Group is abbreviated "g", which can represent a noun group, a verb group, an adjective group, or a preposition group. Since the type of group is uniquely determined by the nature of the head (e.g. a noun group is a group with a noun as its head), it is not necessary to specify the type of group. The four types of groups are illustrated below:

g

group

  • zawjat-ii jamiila
  • kaana yaqra' al-jariida
  • 'asbaHa al-walad kabiir jiddan
  • 'istaqbala al-za'iruun fii al-maTaar


2.3. WORD CLASSES -> top

We operate with 11 word classes. Each of these is illustrated below:

n

noun

'inna al-bint jamiila

v

verb

'istaqbala-hum fii almaTaar 'ams

adj

adjective

'inna al-bint jamiila

adv

adverb

istaqbala-hum fii al-maTaar 'ams

art

article

'inna al-bint jamiila

pron

pronoun

'istaqbala-hum fii al-maTaar

prep

preposition

'istaqbal-hum fii al-maTaar 'ams

conj

conjunction

hal waSala b-il-Taa'ira aw b-il-qiTaar?

part

particle

'inna al-bint jamiila


2.4 ADDITIONAL WORD CLASSES -> top

The word class "pronoun" can be further subdivided into the following subtypes:

  • pron-pers
  • pron-pos
  • pron-dem
  • pron-rel

2.4.1 TYPES OF PRONOUN:

pron-pers

personal pronoun

'anaa 'uHibbu-ki

pron-pos

possesive pronun

yaHtarim al-Tullaab mudarrisa-hum

pron-dem

demonstrative pronoun

qara'tu hadha al-kitaab marraat kathiira

pron-rel

relative pronoun

'uHibbu al-bint allatii taskun hunaak

 


Helle Lykke Nielsen & Gunna Funder Hansen, October 1999

 


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