University of Southern Denmark
World of VISL -> Alphabetical list of primary and secondary tags currently used in corpus annotation  Visual Interactive Syntax Learning  
Syddansk Universitet
 
 

Alphabetical list of primary and secondary Constraint Grammar tags

The tag list given here is a complete alphabetical inventory of all PoS, morphology and syntactic tags for VISL's CG languages, as well as a number of secondary tags.

In the table below, PoS categories (word classes) are blue, syntactic function tags are green and preceded by '@', with arrow heads (>,<) added as dependency markers. The remaining upper case tags describe morphology/inflexion, while lower case tags in sharp parentheses (<...>) provide secondary information that may be used to create PoS subclasses (e.g. <rel>, <interr>) or added syntactic distinctions (e.g. <pass>, <aux>, <aci-subj>). In the list, upper case tags precede lower case tags, and agular bracket tags (<>) are listed after letter-only tags. @-tags are listed last.

Only major verbal valency tags are shown. Semantic tags are not include, with the exception of som major categories for proper nouns (PROP). The Danish tag section includes a full overview over semantic prototypes for nouns, as well as a complete valency section.

Category

Definition

da
sv
no

pt

es

fr

it

de

en

eo

ACC

accusative case (N, PERS)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

ADJ

adjective

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

ADV

adverb

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

AKT

active (V PR, V IMPF, V INF, V PCP2)

+







+

ART

article, cp. <art> (*)

+

*

*

+

+

+

+

+

COM

comparative degree (ADJ, ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

CONJ

(a) subjunctive mood, also SUBJ (*)

+

*

*

*

*

+



CONJ

conjunction, cp. KS and KC







+


DAT

dative case (N)

+

+

+

+

+

+



DEF

definite (N, ADJ, ART, DET)

+








DET

determiner pronoun (inflecting)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

DIR

directive "case" (ADV)

+








F

female gender


+

+

+

+

+



GEN

genitive case

+





+

+


GER

gerund, cp. PCP1, PING (*)


+

+






IDF

indefinite (N, ADJ, ART, DET)

+








IMP

imperative (V)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

IMPF

past tense (V), also PAST (*)

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

+

IN

interjection

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

INDP

independent pronoun (non-inflecting)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

INF

infinitive (V)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

INFM

infinitve marker

+



+

+

+

+


KC

coordinating conjunction

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

KS

subordinating conjunction

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

LOC

locative "case" (ADV)

+








M

male gender


+

+

+

+

+



N

noun

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

nD

no or underspecified definiteness

+








NEU

neuter gender

+





+



nG

no or underspecified gender

+








nN

no or underspecified number

+








NOM

nominative case

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

NUM

numeral --> <card>, <ord>

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

P

plural

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

PAS

passive

+







+

PCP

past participle, cp. PCP2, PED (*)

*

+

+

+

+

*

*

+

PCP1

present participle, cp. GER, PING (*)

+

*

*

*

*

+

*

+

PCP2

past participle, cp. PCP, PED (*)

+

*

*

*

*

+

*

+

PED

-ed participle, cp. PCP, PCP2 (*)







+


PERS

personal pronoun

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

PR

present tense --> AKT, PAS

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

PREF

prefix (cp. <pref>)

+








PROP

proper noun, name

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

PRP

preposition

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

S

singular, cp. SG (*)

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

+

STA

stative past participle

+








SUBJ

subjunctive, cp. CONJ (*)

*

+

+

+

+

?

+


SUP

superlative degree (ADJ, ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

UTR

utrum gender, common gender

+








V

verb --> PR, IMPF, IMP, INF, PCP[12]

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

VN

verbonominal (hybrid, allows prenominals AND clause arguments)

+








1P

1. person plural (PERS +, V ¤)

+

+

+

1S

1. person singular (PERS +, V ¤)

+

+

2P

2. person plural (PERS +, V ¤)

+

+

+

2S

2. person singular (PERS +, V ¤)

+

+

+

3P

3. person plural (PERS +, V ¤)

+

+

+

3S

3. person singular (PERS +, V ¤)

+

+

<*>

upper case

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<*1>

left quote at token

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<*2>

right quote at token

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<A>

animate name (PROP), cp. <A...> (N)

+

+

½




*


<aci-obj>

object of second verb in accusative cum infinitive

+








<aci-subj>

subject of second verb in accusative cum infinitive

+








<adir>

directional adverb, cp. DIR

+

+

+

+

+

+

+


<adv>

adverb-like coordinator

+

+







<advlvp>

adverbial embedded in vp

+








<age>

age-expression

+








<aloc>

locational adverb (ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+


<ameta>

utterance-commenting adverb

+

*







<aquant>

quantifier/intensifier adverb (ADV)

+

*

+

+

+

+

+


<art[di]>

article (definite/indefinite), cp. ART


+

+






<astro>

astronomical name (PROP)

+

+







<atemp>

temporal adverb (ADV)

+

*

+

+

+

+

+


<aux>

auxiliary or modal verb (V)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<B>

botanical name (PROP)

+

+







<brand>

brand name (PROP

+

+







<card>

cardinal number (NUM)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<civ>

civitas” place name (PROP

+

+







<clock>

numeric time expression

+








<co-acc>

coordinator of direct/accusative objects

+

+







<co-adv>

coordinator of argument adverbials


+







<co-advl>

coordinator of direct adverbials

+

+







<co-app>

coordinator of appositions

+

+







<co-dat>

coordinator of indirect/dative objects

+

+







<co-fin>

coordinator of finite clauses

+

+







<co-finacc>

coordinator object subclauses

+

+







<co-inf>

coordinator of infinitives

+

+







<co-meduden>

coordinator of predications introduced by ‘med’ og ‘uden’

+








<co-nphr>

coordinator of unattached, stray nominal

+

+







<co-oa>

coordinator of object adverbials

+








<co-oc>

coordinator of object complements

+

+







<co-pcp[2]>

coordinator of past participles

+

+







<co-piv>

coordinator of prepositional objects

+

+







<co-postad>

coordinator of adverbial post-adjects

+

+







<co-postnom>

coordinator of postnominal adjects (@N<, @N<PRED)

+

+







<co-pread>

coordinator of adverbial pre-adjects

+

+







<co-prenom>

coordinator of prenominal adjects

+

+







<co-prparg>

coordinator of arguments of preposition

+

+







<co-sa>

coordinator of subject adverbials

+








<co-sc>

coordinator of subject complements

+








<co-subj>

coordinator of subjects (@SUBJ)

+

+







<co-top>+

coordinator of topic constituents

+








<compound>

compound word (parts separated by '+' in the base form)

+





+



<date>

numeric dates

+








<dem>

demonstrative pronoun (DET, INDP)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<disease>

disease (PROP

+

+







<e-mail>

e-mail address

+

+







<ex-n>

proper noun derived from common noun

+








<fem>

female (secodnary +HUM category)

+






+

?

<foc>

 focus particle (ADV)

+

+







<foreign>

foreign word (irregularly used tag)









<genre>

genre (PROP)

+

+







<heur>

heuristic name type

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<hum>

human name (PROP)

+

+

½

½


½



<hyfen>

hyphenated token, in two part analysis

+

+


+

+

+



<inst>

institution (PROP

+

+







<interr>

interrogative pronoun

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<KOMP>

non-inflected comparative (pronoun)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<kp>

conjunctional preposition (PRP)

+





+



<male>

male (secondary +HUM category)

+






+

?

<match>

sports or game match results

+








<media>

media name (PROP)

+

+







<mv>

main verb (V)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<neut>

neuter (secondary +HUM category)

+






+

?

<num-ord>

ordinal numeral (NUM)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<num-ratio>

quotient subclass of NUM

+








<np-close>

close-attached noun phrase, jf. <np-long> (@N<, @N<PRED, @APP)

+

+

+

+

+

+



<np-long>

long-attached noun phrase, jf. <np-close> (@N<, @N<PRED, @APP), also used in coordination

+

+

+

+

+

+



<occ>

event name (PROP

+

+







<org>

organisation name (PROP

+

+

½

½


½



<part-e>

proper noun first part in ompound

+








<party>

party name (PROP)

+

+







<pass>

agent of passive (with @<ADVL), jf. @<PASS and @A<PASS (*)

+

*

*

?

?

?

?


<poss>

possessive pronoun (DET, PERS GEN)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<post>

isolated postfix word

+








<pref>

isolated prefix word (N GEN, jf. PREF)

+








<prop>

proper noun turned into common noun e.g. by inflexion, article or numeral

+








<prp-strand>

stranded preposition (fronted argument)

+








<prp-stray>

stray preposition (without argument)

+








<quant[123]>

quantifier pronoun (DET, INDP)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<quote>

quoted clause or - rarely - phrase, attaches to <v-quote> (the quoting verb)

+








<refl>

reflexive pronoun (PERS, <poss> DET)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<rel>

relative pronoun (DET, INDP, ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<subjvp>

subject embedded in vp

+








<SUP>

pronoun superlative

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<tit>

title name (PROP)

+

+







<top>

place name (PROP)

+

+

½

½


½



<V>

vehicle name (PROP)

+

+







<v-inc>

verb-incorporated (other than particle)

+

½







<va+LOC>

locative valency

+

+

½

½


½



<va+DIR>

directive valency

+

+

½

½


½



<vd>

dative-governing verb (DAT)

+





+



<vdt>

ditransitive verb (DAT + ACC)

+

+

½

½


+

+

½

<ve>

ergative verb

+

+

½

½


½

½


<vi>

intransitive verb

+

+

½

½


+

+

½

<vk>, <vK>

copula verb

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

<PRP^vp>

prepositional valency (PIV)

+

+

½

½


½



<vr>

reflexive verb

+

+

½

½


+

+


<vt>

monotransitive verb (ACC)

+

+

½

½


+

+

½

<vta+LOC>

ditransitive locative valency

+

+

½

½


½



<vta+DIR>

ditransitive directive valency

+

+

½

½


½



<vtk>,<vtK>

transobjective copula

+

+

½

½


+

+

½

<PRP^vtp>

ditransitive verb (ACC + PIV)

+

+

½

½


½

+


<wea>

names of weather phenomena

+








<web>

web-addresses

+

+







<year>

year-dates

+

?







@>A

adverbial pre-adject (left of ADJ, ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@A<

adverbial post-adject (right of ADJ,ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@[<]ACC[>]

direct / accusative object (>, <, >>)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@ADV

adverbial argument, cp. @ADVS, @AS, @ADVO, @AO



+






@ADVL

free adverbial not attached to verb (typically in headlines)

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

+

@[<]ADVL[>]

adjunct [free] adverbial

+

+

+

+

+

+

*

+

@ADVS

subject adverbial, cp. @SA, @ADV


+







@ADVO

object adverbial, cp. @OA, @ADV


+







@APP

apposition (identifying)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@AS-...

averbal clause

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@AS<

argument of averbal clause header

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@CO

coordinator (KC, ADV)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@COM

comparator


+

+






@[<]DAT[>]

indirect [dative, benefactive] object

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@F-[<]ACC[>]

formal [provisional] object

+





+

+


@F-[<]SUBJ[>]

formal [provisional] subject

+



+


+

+


@FAUX

finite auxiliary or modal in verb chain

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@FMV

finite main verb

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@[<]FOC[>]

focus marker

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@FS-...

finite subclause (function marked on finite verb +, or complementizer *)

+

*

*

+

+

+

+

+

@FS-COM

command (main clause category)

+






+


@FS-EXC

exclamation (main clause category)

+






+


@FS-N<

ordinary relative clause

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@FS-QUE

question (main clause category)

+






+


@FS-STA

statement (main clause category)

+






+


@IAUX

non-finite auxiliary or modal, cp. <aux>

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@ICL-...

non-finite subclause (function marked on 1./non-finite verb)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@ICL-AUX<

"right" argument of auxiliary/modal

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@ICL->AUX

"left" argument of auxiliary/modal






+



@IMV

non-finite main-verb, cp. <mv>

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@INFM

infinitve marker (INFM)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@KOMP<

argument of comparative (refering to COM, or <KOMP>)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@MV<

main verb-attached particle (ADV)

+








@>N

prenominal adject (e.g. article, determiner, modifier)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@N<

postnominal (modifier or argument)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@N<<

postnominal in discontinuous np

+








@N<FUSE

second or later part of fused nominal

+








@N<PRED

np-predicative (attributive), cp. @APP)

+

+


+

+

+

+

+

@NPHR

top level np (not part of clause)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@[<]OA[>]

valency bound adverbial, cp. @ADV (*)

+

*

*

+

+

+


?

@[<]OC[>]

object predicative

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@>P

pre-prepositional modifier (left of PRP)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@P<

argument of preposition

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@>>P

fronted pp-dependent

+





+

+


@PAR-L

left part of hyphen- or parenthesis-pair

+



+





@PAR-R

right part of hyphen- or parenth. -pair

+



+





@[<]PIV[>]

prepositional object

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@[<]PRED[>]

adjunct [free] predicative

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@>S

pre-clausal modifier (left of KS)

+





+



@S<

sentence apposition

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@S-[<]SUBJ[>]

situational subject

+



+


+



@[<]SA[>]

ubject-related argument adverbial, cp. @ADVS, @ADV (*)

+

*

*

+

+

+

?

?

@[<]SC[>]

subject predicative/complement

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@SUB

subordinator (KS)

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@[<]SUBJ[>]

subject

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

@TOP

syntactic topic

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

?

@VOK

vocative constituent

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

 

 


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